Final Exam 1 PSY/300 Final Exam: PSY/300 (Weeks 1-5) Multiple Choice1. Erik Erikson argues that an understanding of an individual’s behavior requires consideration of: A) Biological events B) Psychological experience C) Cultural and historical context D) all of the above 2.
The aim of biopsychology (also referred to as behavioral neuroscience) is to: A) Link soma and somette in order to understand how emotions manifest themselves behaviorally B) Investigate the physical basis of psychological phenomena such as motivation, emotion, and stress C) Understand the complex interactions of the nervous system D) Study how thoughts and feelings influence an individual’s biological reactions 3.
The first laboratory in Psychology was founded in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879 by: A) Sigmund Freud B) Wilhelm Wundt C) William James D) Rene Descartes 4. The approach to psychology which involved devising a method for uncovering the basic elements of consciousness and the way they combine with each other into ideas was known as A) Structuralism B) Behaviorialism Final Exam 2 PSY/300 C) Functionalism D) Elementarism 5. Which field of psychology argues that one’s perception of the pieces will be influenced when seeing them as parts of the whole?
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A) Evolutionary B) Perceptual C) Empirical D) Gestalt 6. A hypothesis is best characterized as: A) A procedure that precedes a theoretical framework B) Any phenomenon that can change from one situation to another C) A systematic way of organizing and explaining observations D) A tentative belief about the relationship between two or more variables 7. To ensure that I am a good researcher, I gave the same questionnaire to the same participants at three different points in time. I hope to get ssentially the same answers. If I do, then I can conclude that my experiment has: A) Internal validity B) External validity C) Inter-rater reliability D) test-retest reliability 8. When it comes to the ethics of animal research, which one of the following is NOT an issue? A) Some animals are cuter than others B) Whether animals have rights Final Exam 3 PSY/300 C) To what extent humans can use other creatures to solve human problems D) That animals cannot give informed consent 9.
Information is sent to the brain via the sensory or _____ neurons. A) Afferent B) Motor C) Transient D) Inter 10. Axons are responsible for A) Receiving information from other cells B) Transmitting information to other neurons C) Increasing the transmission speed of messages D) Determining how that particular neuron will manipulate input 11. There are two types of neurotransmitters. They are: A) Inhibitory and synaptic B) Modulating and excitatory C) Inhibitory and excitatory D) Modulating and synaptic 12.
The part of the cerebral cortex that is involved in the sense of touch and feeling one’s own body in space is the: A) Parietal lobe B) Occipital lobe C) Temporal lobe D) Frontal lobe Final Exam 4 PSY/300 13. Which of the following is NOT a basic principle of sensation and perception? A) Sensation and perception require strong enough impulses to surpass minimal thresholds B) Sensation and perception are active processes C) There is no one-to-one correspondence between physical and psychological reality D) Sensation and perception are adaptive 4. What kind of learning can be achieved through classical conditioning? A) Learning that an event occurred B) Learning that people have certain patterns of behavior C) Learning that two events are related D) Learning that a behavior produces a particular result 15. As you drive down the street, a leaf hits your windshield. You know that it is not going to break the windshield and yet you blink anyway. In classical conditioning, blinking to an object that is about to hit you in the face is a/an: A) CS B) CR C) UCS D) UCR 16.
You recently noticed that eating sour candy causes extra salivation as your body reacts to the sour taste. You love sour candy and eat it often. The other day you purchased a new bag of sour candy and as you were looking at the bag, you noticed that you were salivating. The sour candy is a: A) CS B) CR C) UCS Final Exam 5 PSY/300 D) UCR 17. The purpose of Watson’s experiment involving little Albert was to determine if: A) Infants are innately capable of learning fear B) Phobias do exist C) Babies are just as susceptible as adults to fears D) Emotional responses can be learned 8. An important distinction between operant and classical conditioning is that: A) Classical conditioning can be used to extinguish an undesirable response while operant conditioning tends to be incapable of doing so B) In classical conditioning responses are elicited while in operant conditioning they are emitted C) Classical conditioning works best with mammals and operant conditioning works best with birds and rodents D) Classical conditioning requires an experimenter and operant conditioning does not 9. The theory of motivation that states that people are motivated by wishes and fears is A) The cognitive approach B) The psychodynamic approach C) The biological approach D) None of the above 20. ERG theory condenses Maslow’s hierarchy of needs into three distinct levels: A) Elementary, reproductive and goal realization B) Elementary, relatedness, and growth C) Existence, relatedness, and growth D) Existence, reproductive, and goal realization Final Exam 6 PSY/300 21.
The part of the brain that is responsible for registering the emotional significance of objects is the A) Hypothalamus B) Limbic system C) Cortex D) Amygdala 22. Which one of the following describes a person who is fixated in the latent stage? A) person with problems committing to a relationship B) Person who is uninterested in sex C) A smoker D) Person over 40 who has never moved out of their parents’ home 23. Which of the following refers to setting goals, evaluating performance, and adjusting behavior to achieve these goals in the context of ongoing feedback?
A) goal-establishment B) outcome-management C) potential-realization D) Self-regulation 24. Which of the following factors in the Five Factor Model is believed to be the least heritable? A) Agreeableness B) Neuroticism C) Extraversion D) Openness Final Exam 7 PSY/300 25. The very last developmental crisis adult’s face, according to Erikson at least, is: A) Intimacy versus isolation B) Integrity versus despair C) Generativity versus stagnation D) Acceptance versus despondence 26.
Piaget argued all of the following EXCEPT: A) Children’s thought processes are creative but constrained by physical realities and brain development B) Children experience the same stages in the same order C) Children are motivated to make sense of what they experience, integrating what they know D) Cognitive efficiency is influenced by children’s knowledge base 27. According to the psychodynamic viewpoint on moral development, children initially are relatively: A) Evil B) Narcissistic C) good D) Saintly 8. When determining a diagnosis for treating mental disorders, the different axes refer to: A) The symptoms, personality disturbances, medical conditions, and environmental stressors B) The severity of the disorder and the extent to which it will interfere with daily life C) The domain of life which will be most disrupted by the disorder, such as work, school, or relationships D) The types of emotional, physical, or social disruption that can be expected from a particular disorder Final Exam 8 PSY/300 29.
Which of the following is an umbrella term for a number of psychotic disorders that involve disturbances in nearly every dimension of human physiology, including thought, perception, behavior, language, communication, and emotion? A) Schizophrenia B) Personality disorder C) Mood disorder D) Dissociative disorder 30. Which personality disorder is marked by extremely unstable interpersonal relationships, dramatic mood swings, an unstable sense of identity, intense fears of separation and abandonment, manipulativeness, and impulsive behavior?
A) Narcissistic B) Antisocial C) Borderline D) Histrionic 31. Systematic desensitization is based on the idea that A) Relaxation training can aid people with schizophrenia B) Physical contact with other people is essential for contact comfort C) Through early experiences people learn to fear social interactions D) Through classical conditioning people have associated fear with previously neutral stimuli 32. Antipsychotic medications reduce symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations by _____ activity within the brain. A) Increasing epinephrine B) Inhibiting serotonin C) Inhibiting dopamine
Final Exam 9 PSY/300 D) Increasing glutamate 33. The goal of antidepressant medications such as SSRIs is to: A) Keep serotonin acting longer in the synapses of the brain? B) Keep people from making irrational associations between ideas C) Reduce body weight and make people feel better about them D) Reduce anxiety that leads to depression 34. Characteristics that are attributed to people based on their membership in a specific group, and that are often over-generalized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information are called: A) Prejudices B) Biases C) Stereotypes D) Discrimination 5. Cognitive bias in social cognition is thought to be the result of: A) Heuristics that can lead people awry B) Schemas and attributions being influenced by wishes, needs, and desires C) People frequently lacking the time to make accurate attributions D) all of the above 36. The relationship between personality and self-schemas can be seen in a number of ways. Which one of the following is NOT true of that relationship?
A) People who feel disappointment, dissatisfaction, shame, and embarrassment have a discrepancy between actual and ideal selves B) People who feel anxiety, fear, resentment, guilt, self-contempt, or uneasiness have a discrepancy between actual and ought selves C) People who experience feelings of failure, social rejection, isolation, and a lack of Final Exam 10 PSY/300 accomplishment have a discrepancy between ideal and ought selves D) All of the above are true of the relationship between personality and self-schemas 37.
Companionate love involves: A) Wild emotions, intense physiological arousal, and absorption in another person B) Deep affection, friendship, and emotional intimacy C) Acquaintance cordiality, friendship, and societal responsibility D) Selflessness, altruism, and reciprocal giving 38. Behaving in a way that helps another person with no apparent gain, or with potential cost, to oneself is known as: A) Selfless gratification B) Ego protection C) Ethical hedonism D) Altruism 39. Which of the following is a drawback of antianxiety medications?
A) They can cause physiological dependence. B) There is a high relapse rate when the drugs are discontinued. C) They can cause psychological dependence. D) All of the above. 40. The three broad classes of psychopathology distinguished by psychodynamic theorists are: A) anxiety disorders, personality disorders, somatoform disorders B) organic disorders, developmental disorders, experiential disorders C) cognitive dysfunctions, behavioral abnormalities, interpersonal maladies D) personality disorders, neuroses, psychoses Final Exam 11 PSY/300
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