The Purpose of Performing Environmental Monitoring Programs

Describe the intent for executing environmental monitoring plans and the importance of good experimental design and quality confidence in these plans
Monitoring is a common tool everyone uses in mundane life may it be to maintain path of conditions, stocks, traffic forms, or lodging costs. Decisions are so made based on the information we accumulate through this procedure. Monitoring keeps us informed, it helps us with determinations and qui vives us to any possible jobs that may originate in the hereafter or may hold occurred in the yesteryear. Environmental monitoring explains the processs and projects that need to take topographic point to supervise the quality of the environment. Although environmental monitoring plans over the old ages, have been criticized for “costing excessively much while presenting excessively little” , it operates as an indispensable scientific process/step by uncovering any kind of tendencies that may take to new cognition and/or better apprehension of the environment.

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Aimfor executing environmental monitoring plans
The intent for executing environmental monitoring is to mensurate the positive/negative impacts of homo or natural impact on the environment. It can be used in the readying of Environmental Impact Statement ( EIA ) and in any environmental scene where human influences on the natural environment may or may non be apparent, or has the possibility of negative or positive alteration that may originate over clip. The intent for executing any kind of plans and policies would frequently be designed around the current province of the environment and will seek to determine tendencies in environmental parametric quantities centred on current or baseline informations sets.
Examples of these supervising plans can be seen in the instance survey of the Investigation of shadowings H2O leak at the Ranger U mine and the Australia Pacific LNG- Receiving Environment Monitoring Program: Condamine River.
The intent of the monitoring plan at the Ranger U mine was for the Supervising Scientist to find the sum to which the environment ( affecting people ) have been effected by the possible impacts of U excavation due to a leak which occurred in one of the shadowings H2O return pipe at the Ranger U mine during the 1999–2000 moisture season. The ERA predicted that approximately 2000 three-dimensional meters of procedure shadowing H2O had seeped from a pipe. However the flow rate of the pipe was non measured hence taking to uncertainness in the appraisal of the entire volume of the leak as some of the shadowings H2O may non hold entered the disused pipe section. The plan aims to find if the redress work were successful and whether the escape had impacted the Kakuda National Park, which is located downstream from the site.
In the 2nd instance survey on the Australia Pacific LNG- Receiving Environment Monitoring Program: Condamine River, the intent of the monitoring plans was for research workers to place and depict the extent of any unfavorable environmental impacts on the local waterways of the already ill conditioned Condamine Catchment. Agricultural development and H2O resource development within the part have contributed to the hapless wellness in the part. Furthermore, the profusion and copiousness of macroinvertebrate communities in the part is lower compared with the expected natural status due to the hapless H2O quality. Therefore the plan aims to find if the increased discharge of treated coal seam gas ( CSG ) H2O to natural waterways as a portion of the Australia Pacific LNG Project will hold further negative effects on the part and to supervise any alterations in the receiving H2O among many other purposes.
The importance of good experimental designs
Experimental designs are frequently calculated but controlled nosiness of the natural order of events by research workers. Experimental designs refer to a “structured, planned method, which is used to happen the relationship between different factors ( X variables ) that affect a undertaking and the different results of a undertaking ( Y variables ) .” A method created by Sir Ronald A Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s.
The importance of experimental design comes from the chase for illation sing grounds or relationships as opposed to merely depicting why an event occurred, as research workers are seldom content to merely explicate the events they observe. They want to do tax write-offs as to what created, contributed to, or triggered events. In order to obtain dependable information, some signifier of intricate experimental design is required. The intent of the design is to govern out option or irrelevant relationships, effects and causes, in order to deduce the existent and existent factor.
Seen in the Ranger U mine instance survey where a leak occurred, the informations that instigated the probes were non everyday monitoring informations but research informations. The statutory monitoring informations, which were conveyed to the governments before the incident, did non supply any suggestion of the leak because there were no systematic monitoring plans designed to supervise the unity of the secondary containment system. Therefore a new monitoring plan was initiated to quantify the tonss and concentrations of pollutants that were go forthing the Ranger Project Area which were attributable to mining processs on the site. This allows the appraisal of H2O quality informations with suited benchmarks and besides permits the designation of tendencies in H2O quality. This will let direction to take appropriate actions in a timely mode.
In the instance of Australia Pacific LNG, good experimental design is of import in this survey because the watercourse H2O was non merely for imbibing intents, the H2O quality is besides a major factor in the control of fish motion and H2O irrigation for agribusiness intents in the part. Irrespective of whether the CSG discharge was being released into the river or non, the quality of the H2O in the river at the different receiving environment and background sites were monitored throughout the monitoring plan. The consequences were so reviewed to find the most appropriate location for the extra CSG discharge, as the Department of Environment and Resource Management ( DERM ) had non yet identified the location of the discharge. Interim and one-year interpretative studies depicting the consequences was completed after each monitoring event, which allows the analysis of spacial and temporal tendencies. This provided recommendations sing the definition of the receiving environment, supervising plan design and direction of discharges if required.
The consequences of any monitoring instances will ever be evaluated and scrutinized, as research workers ever want to sort ideal conditions in which certain factors would hold the most influence on the consequences and every bit good as those that do non. This is to observe interfaces and interactions amongst the factors. Effective environmental monitoring plan, frequently adhere to some basic yet of import constructs. Some illustrations include puting good aims, holding a grade of preciseness, reproduction and generalization ; controls, ‘Blind’ Designs and ideally the experimental method should be both accurate ( i.e. , give the true mean ) and precise ( i.e. , have a low criterion divergence ) , although sometimes one is more of import than the other for their plans. The choice of any experimental design depends on your aim as seen in the above illustrations. The pattern of invariably updating the hypothesis and comparing the inferred provinces of nature with existent informations may take on to the right replies because good experimental design allows the ‘quantification of uncertainty.’
Quality Assurance ( QA )
In monitoring plans, quality assurance/quality control steps are of import constituents of the plans because these activities demonstrate the truth and preciseness ( how near to the existent consequence you are vs. how consistent your consequences are ) of the monitoring plans. Quality Assurance ( QA ) by and large refers to the procedure to guarantee that dependable consequences are obtained and recorded. It starts prior to try aggregation ( method proof and certification ) , is indispensable for forensic intents & A ; legal conformity and is highly utile for long-run informations analysis. QA should depict how researches would get down their monitoring attempt from accurate recording of all processs, preparation of voluntaries, survey design, informations organisation and analysis to specific quality control measures. Quality Control ( QC ) entails all the stairss researches will take to standardise the legitimacy of specific sampling and analytical processs.
QA plans should affect internal cheques for quality control and appraisal. Spaces are typically used as they are intended to bring out taints that may lend to inaccuracy and the biasness of consequences. For illustration, filtration spaces cheques for possible cross-contamination through deficient field filtration techniques while travel spaces detect any prevailing pollution ensuing from the container during conveyance and storage. Other spaces include equipment space which consequences include entire field and laboratory beginnings of taint and instrument spaces consequences, which show merely laboratory beginnings of taint. The analysis of Standard Reference Material ( SRM ) is besides an of import as it measures the methods truth, as SRM are prepared from reagents of highest pureness, or samples that have been spiked with analyte. It is an confidence that the consequences attained in the monitoring plan are comparable with consequences from other research labs.
At the Ranger U mine, to attest that the consequences of the uninterrupted monitoring informations are valid, extended sets of quality control ( QC ) substructure are in topographic point i.e. equipment and construction direction, care and standardization enfranchisement, along with in-built dorsum up systems to vouch that the sets of QC substructures remain functional at all times. Two multiprobe and an car sampling station were installed at each site and were attached to informations lumbermans that collect the measured informations and controlled the operation of the instruments through a elaborate and comprehensive logging plan. This logging plan ensures the immediate polish of any issue in the instrument or detector through trying triggers every bit good as a figure of dismaies.
In the Australia Pacific LNG instance survey, H2O quality monitoring of samples were done at deepnesss of about 30cm from the surface at each site. Field sampling was done by a suitably trained and experient individual in conformity with Australian StandardWater Quality Sampling, and in conformity with theMonitoring and Sampling Guidelines 2009.Which in sum-up:

Samples were collected directly into the sample bottle wherever possible, and the bottles were non rinsed prior to try collectionaˆ?
Powderless baseball mitts were used when roll uping all H2O samples, and attention will was taken non to touch the interior of any trying containers, or to put unfastened bottles / jars or their palpebras onto the land or other contaminated surfaces
A field space was collected from one site during each trying event, to measure sample handling processs
Samples were placed in an esky and maintain under the appropriate retention conditions for each parametric quantity until it was delivered to the research lab within the appropriate retention clip ( as advised by the analytical research lab ) in conformity with the security and conveyance protocols outlined in theMonitoring and Sampling Manual( DERM 2009a )
A concatenation of detention signifier was completed for all samples sent to the research lab for analysis, andaˆ?
A NATA-accredited research lab analyzed samples, and research lab extras and spaces were analyzed in conformity with NATA-accredited protocols.

The consequences from the QA were crosschecked with a 2nd lab and an mistake rate of & lt ; 10 % will be considered acceptable ( in conformity with the National River Health Program protocols, DERM 2009a ) . If consequences were deemed unacceptable & gt ; 10 % , it will ensue in a farther 10 % of samples being checked by a 2nd lab, and so on.
The intent for executing environmental monitoring plans is frequently to set up tendencies in environmental parametric quantities based on current or baseline informations sets. The chief end for executing environmental monitoring is to supervising informations from legion spacial and temporal graduated tables ; interpret informations into ratings of current ecological status and forecasts the hereafter hazards and benefits to our natural resources. Although H2O quality records can be extremely variable in footings of temporal and spacial frequence of sampling, good experimental design and good quality confidence plans can guarantee a monitoring plan is successful and the consequences dependable. However, supervising plans can non be run indefinitely. At some point researches would necessitate to inquire if the monitoring plan is still relevant and have we learnt all we needed.

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